Dick and Carey Model

Dick and Carey Instructional Design Model

Walter Dick and Lou Carey advocate a systems approach to designing instruction in the most recent version (2011) of their text, The Systematic Design of Instruction. Their work is based on the behaviorist theory of learning pioneered by B.F. Skinner.  In its simplest form, behaviorism proposes that external behavior (i.e. learning) can be achieved from both positive and negative reinforcement.   Behaviorist theories contributed to the development of more efficient methods of creating directed instruction.

Systems models (like the Dick and Carey model) take information from learning theories and turn them into step-by-step procedures for planning instruction. It is the designer’s responsibility to determine the skills and sub-skills a student must master in order for the behavior to be learned and choose the stimulus and strategy for instruction in order to achieve these skills. The basic steps in the Dick and Carey instructional design model are as follows:

  1. Determine instructional goal
  2. Analyze the instructional goal
  3. Analyze learners and contexts
  4. Write performance objectives
  5. Develop assessment instruments
  6. Develop instructional strategy
  7. Develop and select instructional materials
  8. Design and conduct formative evaluation
  9. Revise instruction
  10. Summative evaluation

The Dick and Carey model is one of the most widely used in instructional design.   The model is iterative and can be improved at any point in the process.  I used this model as the basis for creating the instructional tutorial shown in the Articulate Storyline example.   The model, provided below,  was created for my portfolio and is not associated with any environmental consulting firms.  If the tutorial was put into actual use, both the model and instructional tutorial, would continually be improved based on learner outcomes.


Dick and Carey Instructional Design Model Example

Environmental Field Technician Training

Unit I – YSI 556 Water Quality Instrument Calibration and Use

1.0  Problem statement

Environmental consulting and engineering companies investigate and clean-up hazardous waste sites pursuant to state and federal regulations.  During the completion of these projects, field sampling programs are performed by environmental technicians.  Most Environmental Science Bachelor’s programs teach student high level concepts (e.g. sustainability, renewable energy, hydrogeology concepts, and chemical behavior in the environment). However, most entry level environmental scientist are required to do a stint in the field as a sampling technician which requires a whole different set of skills (e.g. mastering various field sampling methodologies; properly calibrating/using field meters; and following appropriate chain-of-custody protocols).  Unfortunately, they are not taught these skills in college. What occurs at many environmental consulting firms is that entry level employees are trained by slightly more senior employees who were not properly trained in the first place. This system creates a cycle of improper training and results in a wide variety of sampling errors.  These errors cause problems ranging from minor clerical mistakes all the way up to picking the wrong remedial methodology for a site.

The principles of instructional design will be used to create a series of training units with the goal of standardizing the training process for environmental technicians which will greatly reduce field errors.  The first training unit in this series will instruct employees on the proper calibration and operation of an YSI 556 Water Quality Instrument. This meter is used to take field measurements of conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and ORP and its proper usage is critical for determining site chemistry

2.0  Instructional Goal

Company environmental technician will properly calibrate and operate an YSI 556 Water Quality Instrument on any company worksite or field investigation program.

3.0  Training Title

Environmental Technician Training Unit 1: Water Quality Meter Calibration and Usage.

4.0  Training Length  

Environmental Technician Training Module 1 will take a total of five hours to complete.  Calibration training will be conducted at the company’s chemical laboratory and will require a total of 2 hours.  Training employees to use these instruments in the field will be conducted at a company job site (the actual site will be determined at the time of training) and will require 3 hours to complete.

5.0 Learner Analysis

General Group Characteristics

The learning group is generally comprised of recent college graduates who are beginning their career in the environmental industry.  They will have likely completed a bachelor’s degree program in Environmental Science, Environmental Engineering, or Civil Engineering. These learners will be in their early 20s and will have a common interest in the environment and environmental issues.  Alternatively, some of the learners may have recently completed an associates program specifically to become environmental technicians.  This subgroup may include career changers who may be older and more focused on earning a living than the younger learners.  Most large consulting companies hire 5 to 10 entry level employees at the start of each field season.  Thus the size of the target audience for this training will be approximately 10 individuals.

Prior Knowledge of Topic

All of the learners will have some knowledge of environmental chemistry as they will at least have had a college course in basic chemistry.  Many of the learners will have also taken courses in environmental and/or organic chemistry.  Learners from 2-year Environmental Technician programs will likely be less well versed in various environmental chemistry principles.  However, they may already have received training on the use of field equipment and methods.

Entry Skills

All learners will need to be able to use a touch-screen interface and stylus similar to a tablet computer interface.  Learners are required to have a basic understanding of chemical safety procedures and will have taken and passed an Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) certified 40-hour Hazardous Waste Operational and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) training course.

Attitudes toward Content

As new employees, the learners are motivated to learn the skills necessary to succeed in a new job. The skills are highly relevant and directly applicable on-the-job for individual field staff.  However, based on the designers experience some learners may have a slightly negative attitude towards this training:

  • Learners from 4-year environmental or engineering programs may believe their education entitles them to a higher starting position within the company; or
  • Learners from 2-year technician training programs may have already received similar training and believe the content is unnecessary or redundant.

Attitudes toward Delivery System

Based on the demographics of the learners (i.e. young computer savvy professionals), the delivery system will include an interactive computer based platform tailored to their existing skill-set.  Based on an initial review of the material, content will likely be delivered in three steps:

  1. Direct instruction/demonstration;
  2. Interactive computer based tutorials; and
  3. Hands-on activity with instructor supervision.

Motivation for instruction

The company is highly motivated for this instruction.  Many costly errors have occurred due to improper training of field crews (e.g. re-sampling, revisions to technical documents, and the repair/replacement of remedial equipment).  The standardization of environmental technician training will greatly reduce these errors.  The specific motivation for Unit 1 (Water Quality Instrument Calibration and Usage) is to improve the quality of field chemistry data thus allowing better remedial decisions.

Educational Levels and Ability Levels

As stated above, field technicians will have a minimum of two years of college education.  Like all populations, their ability levels will likely be quite variable.  Many learners from four year environmental/engineering programs are often gifted academically but sometimes lack hands-on skills.  Conversely, learners with associate degrees may have a good foundation on how to collect environmental field data but have poor understanding of what it means.  Therefore, the instruction will be designed with different points of entry to accommodate different educational backgrounds and ability levels.

General Learning Preferences

The learners in this group are young and have grown up with technology.  They are familiar and comfortable with computers, smart phones, and video games.  They generally prefer content delivered through electronic media than traditional lectures.  In addition, they prefer content delivered in fun and novel ways.  However, many young people are still unsure of themselves and like to have an authority figure available when they encounter difficulties.

Attitudes toward Learning Organization

As indicated above, most of the learners will have a positive attitude toward the training organization.  For most of them, this will be their first job out of school and they will be anxious to make a good impression.  However, as noted above, learners coming from 4-year college programs may feel that should enter the organization at a higher level based on the college achievements.  While learners coming from associates programs may already have already received similar training and may feel that this instruction is redundant.  These factors may negatively impact the learner’s attitude towards the organization.

6.0  Performance Context Analysis

Managerial or Supervisor Support

Management is highly supportive of this training program as some contracts have even been lost in the past due to the poor execution of field programs.  They are fully committed to funding the program and allowing time for their employees to receive training.  Conversely, individual supervisors and project managers have expressed negative feeling toward the program.  They have jobs that need to be staffed and deadlines to meet.  These individuals believe they can train these new employees on the job just as well as this training program.  This is particularly problematic as these individuals may resist their employees using new techniques and skills.

Physical Aspect of Performance Site

The first part of this training will occur at the company’s organic chemistry laboratory.  This will allow the learners to master the calibration and use of the meter under controlled conditions.  The second part of the training will be performed at a project site (to be determined at the time of training).  This will impart a real world aspect to the training as the learners will need to make meter adjustments based on changing atmospheric conditions (e.g. decreasing/increasing temperature, high humidity, rain, and variable light levels).

Social Aspects of Performance Site

Field technicians generally work in groups of two or more.  Thus learners will be broken into groups of two for this training.  Group partners will be changed after part one of the training to ensure that one individual does not become too reliant on another.

Relevance of Skills to the Workplace

The skills learned in this and follow-on units are extremely relevant to the workplace and are the exact skills the learners will be using in their job.  The company has made a commitment to remove older equipment from service and update/maintain all YSI 556 instruments and ancillary equipment.   Thus no physical constraints to implementing new skills are anticipated.  As indicated above, learners may encounter some resistance to using new skills/methods from supervisors and/or project managers.  Thus social/motivational constraints to using these skills may have to be addressed by management.

7.0    Learning Context Analysis

Number/nature of Learning Sites

As indicated above there will be two learner sites: the company’s organic chemistry laboratory and a field site to be chosen at the time of training.

Learning Site Compatibility with Instructional Needs

The laboratory is compatible with initial training as all the necessary equipment and materials are available (i.e. YSI instruments, computers, an electrical supply, and calibration solutions).  This is an excellent venue to learn to use the equipment but represents ideal/unrealistic conditions relative to field use. The second part of the training will be performed at a real field investigation site.  This site will be compatible with instructional needs as it exactly matches conditions in which learners will use these skills in the future.  However, it should be noted that field technicians work under a very wide range of weather conditions which cannot be fully simulated by a onetime training event.

Learning Site Compatibility with Learner Needs

Both learning sites are compatible with learner needs.  All equipment necessary for the training will be provided at each location.  It should be noted that some of the learners will have low tolerance to extreme weather conditions that can be encountered during an environmental field investigations.  As stated above, all learners will have completed an OSHA 40-hour HAZWOPER course and will have learned techniques for working in weather extremes.

Feasibility for simulating the Workplace

The second training site will be an actual field site and will exactly replicate workplace conditions.  However, as noted above, a single training event cannot fully simulate all variables future environmental technicians will encounter in the field.

8.0   Goal Analysis

Goal Analysis_Field Tech Training

Goal Analysis_Field Tech Training A

Goal Analysis_Field Tech Training B

Goal Analysis_Field Tech Training C

9.0  Performance Objectives
  • Given an YSI 556 instrument, probe, and supporting materials/supplies confirm equipment is fully functional according to the Equipment Inspection Checklist. The battery must be at least 90% charged, the sonde and meter must be properly communicating; and all buffer/calibration solutions must be within expiration date.
  • Given an YSI 556 instrument, calibrate the instrument to the tolerances specified in the Field Meter Calibration Log.
  • Prior to taking any readings, perform a qualitative check of the dissolved oxygen (D.O.) probe by using the atmospheric pressure to determine the appropriate D.O. concentration.
  • Given Performance Evaluation samples; analyze samples and report data on a hard copy of the P.E. Sample Analysis form or input data directly into the Field Technician Training – Unit 1 training module. Data tolerances must be within the following ranges.

pH: +/- 0.1

Conductivity: +/- 5%

Oxidation/Reduction Potential: +/- 5%

Dissolve Oxygen: No criteria

Temperature: No criteria

10.0   Assessments
  1. Field Equipment Checklist (Corresponds to Performance Objective 1).
 Field Equipment ChecklistDate:_______________________Type: ____Water Quality Meter__                           Model No.:   YSI 556____Company Asset No.____________                           Serial No:.______________
Item Evaluation Criteria Meets Criteria Describe Problem
    Yes No  
Display Shows menu and sonde not connected message
Battery >90 % Charge
Probe Connection No corrosion or bent pins
Prove Communication Instrument indicates probe connected
pH 4 buffer Expiration date later than today’s date?
pH 7 buffer Expiration date later than today’s date?
pH 10 buffer Expiration date later than today’s date?
Conductivity Solution Expiration date later than today’s date?
ORP Solution Expiration date later than today’s date?
Notes: Form to be completed prior to leaving the office.

 

  1. Calibration Log (Corresponds to Performance Objective 2, 3, &4).
 Field Meter Calibration Log   Date:_______________________                                        Location:_________________Type:__Water Quality Instrument__                    Model No.:__YSI 556______Company Asset No.___________    Serial No.:_______     Atm. Pressure:_____________ 
Parameter Standard Concentration Units Initial Reading Correct To Post Calibration Reading
pH 4.0 None 4.0
7.0 None 7.0
10.0 None 10.0
Conductivity 1.0 mS/cm 1.0
ORP 231 mv
D.O. ppm
Notes: Determine appropriate D.O concentration using atmospheric pressure and calibration chart.  Record concentration in appropriate box on form.  If reading is off by more than one ppm, clean probe and replace saline solution and membrane.  Correct ORP solution concentration for temperature.

 

  1. Performance Sample Evaluation Log (Corresponds to Performance Objective 4)
 Performance Sample Evaluation Log Date:_______________________                                        Location:_________________Type:__Water Quality Meter____                           Model No.:__YSI 556______Company Asset No.___________    Serial No.:_______     Atm. Pressure:_____________ 
PE Sample Number(1) Parameter Units Meter Reading(2) Actual Value(3) Tolerances Reading within Tolerances(4)
pH None 0.1
Conductivity mS/cm 5%
ORP None 5%
D.O. Ppm N/A
Temperature °C N/A
pH None 0.1
Conductivity mS/cm 5%
ORP None 5%
D.O. ppm N/A
Temperature °C N/A
pH None 0.1
Conductivity mS/cm 5%
ORP None 5%
D.O. µS/cm N/A
Temperature °C N/A
Notes: Learners will receive three PE samples for analysis.  Data should be entered in columns 1 and 2 or imputed directly into the Field Technician Training – Unit module.  The form should then be given to the instructor for evaluation.  PE samples should not be disposed of until instructor indicates that tolerance criteria have been met.  While waiting for results, learners should keep samples chilled in a refrigerator (if working in the laboratory) or in a cooler with ice (if working in the field.
11.0  Instructional Strategy

Instructor Lead – Training to be conducted at the company’s chemistry laboratory

Objective Activity Duration
Pre-Instruction Review PowerPoint Presentation I: Environmental Chemistry Principles 15 min
All Environmental Chemistry Test for Understanding 15 min
All Review PowerPoint Presentation II: YSI 556 Instrument Tutorial 15 min
All Instructor Demonstration: Calibration and Operation of an YSI 556 Instrument 20 min
1 Equipment Inspection: Learners will inspect their YSI 556 instrument, probe, and ancillary equipment an complete the Field Equipment Checklist 10 min
2 and 3 Equipment Calibration: Learners will:·       Calibrate their YSI 556;·       Replace the D.O. probe membrane if necessary; and·       Complete the Field Meter Calibration LogThe instructor should strongly encourage learners to complete these actions on their own.  If learners have specific process questions, the instructor should direct them to back to the tutorial for answers. 30
4 Performance Sample Evaluation: Learners will:

  • Analyze P.E. samples using the YSI 556;Complete the PE Sample Evaluation Log;
  • Repack equipment (readings are within acceptable tolerances); or
  • Recalibrate unit and rerun P.E. samples (readings are outside acceptable tolerances).
30

 

Materials:

  • Computer
  • YSI 556 Instrument and associated materials
    • Probe
    • pH buffers 4, 7, and 10
    • ORP solution
    • Conductivity solution
    • O. repair kit
  • E. Samples
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
    • Gloves
    • Safety glasses/splash guards

Online – Training to be completed in laboratory or at an operational field site

Objective Activity Duration 
All Environmental Chemistry Review Self Paced
All Environmental Chemistry Review Test for Understanding Self Paced
1 Equipment Inspection: Learners will inspect their YSI 556 Meter, probe, and ancillary equipment and complete a Field Equipment Checklist Self Paced
2 , 3 Equipment Calibration: Learners will:·       Calibrate their YSI 556;·       Replace the D.O. probe membrane and solution if necessary; and·       Complete the Field Meter Calibration Log Self Paced
5 Performance Sample Evaluation: Learners will:·       Analyze P.E. samples using the YSI 556;·       Input data into directly into e-learning module;·       Repack equipment (readings are within acceptable tolerances); or·       Recalibrate unit and rerun P.E. samples (readings are outside acceptable tolerances). Self Paced

 

Materials:

  • Computer
  • YSI 556 instrument and associated materials
    • Probe
    • pH buffers 4, 7, and 10
    • ORP solution
    • Conductivity solution
    • O. repair kit
    • E. Samples
    • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
    • Gloves
    • Safety glasses/splash guards
    • Coveralls or Tyvek (if necessary)

 

YSI 556 Calibration Procedure Cheat Sheet

Preparing for Calibrations:

  • Use the calibration cup (clear plastic cup) for all calibrations.
  • The instrument must be on for at least 20 min to polarize the dissolved oxygen (D.O.) sensor before calibrating D.O.
  • Determine the current Barometric pressure in mmHg from NOAA website (noaa.gov) if unit does not have a optional barometer.
  • Rinse sensors and calibration cup with de-ionized water (D.I. water) after each calibration. Do not over-tighten calibration cup to sensor probe as this could cause damage to threads.
  • Use the proper amount of reagents to ensure sensors are completely submersed when calibration values are entered. Properly dispose of reagents after use.

Access the Calibrate Screen

  1. Press the On/off to display the run screen.
  2. Press the Escape key to display the main menu screen.
  3. Use the arrow keys to highlight the Calibrate selection and press the Enter

pH Calibration –

From the calibrate screen use the arrow keys to highlight pH.

  1. Press Use arrow keys to select the 3-point option to calibrate the pH sensor using three calibration standards. Press Enter.
  2. Rinse the sensor probe and calibration cup with a small amount of I. water and empty cup.
  3. Fill the calibration cup with 30 ml of pH 7 buffer and carefully insert probe into cup. Gently rotate and/or move the probe module up and down to remove any bubbles from the pH sensor.
  4. Use the keypad to enter the calibration value of the pH 7.0 buffer. Press
  5. Allow at least one minute for temperature equilibration before proceeding. Once the pH sensor reading is stabilized, record the initial reading on Calibration Log and then press
  6. Repeat steps 3 through 8 above using pH 4 and pH 10 buffers for the second and third pH calibration.

Conductivity –

  1. From the Calibrate Screen, choose Conductivity, press Then highlight Specific Conductance, and press Enter.
  2. Empty pH 10 solution and rinse sensor and calibration cup with D.I. water. Fill the calibration cup with 55 ml of conductivity standard.
  3. Carefully immerse the sensor probe into the solution. Gently rotate and/or move probe up and down to remove any bubbles from the conductivity cell. The sensor must be completely immersed past its vent hole.
  4. Use the keypad to enter 1.0 mS/cm. Press Enter to display the Conductivity Calibration Screen.
  5. Allow at least one minute for temperature equilibration. When the Specific Conductance value has stabilized (no significant change for 30 seconds), record the initial reading on the Calibration Log, and then press Enter.
  6. Press Enter again to Continue and then Escape to return to the calibrate menu.

Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) –

  1. From the Calibrate Screen, choose ORP, press Enter.
  2. Empty conductivity calibration solution and rinse sensor and calibration cup with D.I. water. Fill the calibration cup with 30 ml of the ORP standard.
  3. Carefully immerse the sensor probe into the solution. Gently rotate and/or move probe up and down to remove any bubbles from the conductivity cell. The sensor must be completely immersed past its vent hole.
  4. Use temperature and chart on calibration solution bottle to determine the correct ORP calibration value.
  5. Use the keypad to enter the temperature corrected ORP value. Press Enter to display the ORP screen.
  6. Allow at least one minute for temperature equilibration. When the ORP and temperature values have stabilized (no significant change for 30 seconds), record the initial reading on the Calibration Log, and then press Enter.
  7. Press Enter again to Continue and then Escape to return to the calibrate menu.

Dissolved Oxygen Calibration Check – (note: the instrument must be on for at least 20 min to polarize the DO sensor before calibrating.)

  1. Fill the calibration cup with approximately 3 mm (1/8”) of water, put sensor probe in cup (make sure DO and Temp sensors are NOT immersed in water). Screw only 1 or 2 threads of the transport cup to make sure the sensors are vented to the atmosphere.
  2. From the Calibrate screen use arrow keys to highlight Dissolved Oxygen, press Select DO % and then press Enter.
  3. Enter the current Barometric Pressure (if necessary). Press
  4. Allow approximately 10 minutes for the air in the cup to become water saturated and the temperature to equilibrate before proceeding.
  5. When the reading under DO% stabilizes for at least 30 seconds record initial reading on Calibration Log and then press Enter to accept Calibration.